Why do women live longer than men?

Everywhere in the world women live longer than men – but this was not always the case. The available data from rich countries shows that women didn’t live longer than men in the 19th century. Why do women live so more than men do today, and why is this difference growing in the past? The evidence is sketchy and we only have partial answers. Although we know that there are behavioral, biological, and environmental factors which all play a part in women’s longevity more than men, we do not know how much each one contributes.

It is known that women are living longer than males, Xhero-bbs.xheromobile.com/home.php?mod=space&uid=78248&do=profile&from=space regardless of weight. However, this is not due to the fact that certain biological factors have changed. What are these factors that have changed? Some are well known and relatively straightforward, like the fact that men smoke more often. Other are more complicated. For example, there is evidence that in rich countries the female advantage increased in part because infectious diseases used to affect women disproportionately a century ago, so advances in medicine that reduced the long-term health burden from infectious diseases, especially for survivors, ended up raising women’s longevity disproportionately.

Everywhere in the world women tend to live longer than men

The first chart below shows life expectancy at birth for men and women. It is clear that all countries are above the diagonal line of parity. This implies that a baby girl in every country can anticipate to live longer than her younger brother.

This graph shows that while there is a female advantage across all countries, differences between countries can be significant. In Russia women live 10 years more than males. In Bhutan the difference is just half a year.



In the richer countries, the advantage of women in longevity was previously smaller.

We will now examine how the advantage of women in longevity has changed with time. The following chart shows male and female life expectancy at birth in the US between 1790 and 2014. Two distinct features stand out.

The first is that there is an upward trend. Both genders in America have longer lives than they did a century ago. This is in line with historical increases in life expectancy everywhere in the world.

Second, there’s an increase in the gap between men and women: female advantage in terms of life expectancy used be very small however, it has increased significantly during the last century.

Using the option ‘Change country from the chart, you can determine if these two points are applicable to other countries with available data: Sweden, France and the UK.