Why do women live longer than men?

Everywhere in the world women live longer than men – but this was not always the case. The available data from rich countries shows that women didn’t live longer than men in the 19th century. What’s the reason women live longer than men? What is the reason the advantage has grown over time? There is only limited evidence and the evidence isn’t sufficient to draw an unambiguous conclusion. We know there are biological, behavioral, and environmental factors which play a significant role in the longevity of women over men, we do not know how much each one contributes.

We know that women are living longer than men, regardless of weight. However this isn’t because of certain biological factors have changed. What are these new factors? Some are well known and relatively straightforward, like the fact that men smoke more often. Some are more complex. For example, there is evidence that in rich countries the female advantage increased in part because infectious diseases used to affect women disproportionately a century ago, so advances in medicine that reduced the long-term health burden from infectious diseases, كيفية ممارسة العلاقة الزوجية فى الاسلام especially for survivors, ended up raising women’s longevity disproportionately.

Everywhere in the world women tend to live longer than men

The first chart below shows life expectancy at birth for men and women. We can see that all countries are above the diagonal parity line – it means that in all nations that a baby girl can be expected to live longer than a newborn boy.1

The chart above shows that although the female advantage exists across all countries, كيفية ممارسة العلاقة الزوجية فى الاسلام the difference between countries is huge. In Russia women have a longer life span than men; in Bhutan the gap is less than half an hour.



In countries with high incomes, the advantage of women in longevity was smaller

Let’s look at how female longevity advantage has changed in the course of time. The following chart shows male and female life expectancy when they were born in the US from 1790 to 2014. Two aspects stand out.

There is an upward trend. Men and women in America live longer than they did 100 years ago. This is in line with historical increases in life expectancy everywhere in the world.

The gap is growing: Although the female advantage in life expectancy was once extremely small but it has risen significantly in the past.

You can verify that these principles are also applicable to other countries that have information by clicking on the “Change country” option in the chart. This includes the UK, France, and Sweden.